Innovative Energy Engineering


Moving water to transport energy is inherently more efficient than moving air. However, much energy is wasted by not optimizing piping systems. Pipes should be sized to maintain flow velocities near 0.6-1.2 m/s (2-4 ft/s ) and below 240-960 Pa/m (1-4 ftH2O/100ft) friction loss.

Every hydronic system will need de-aeration to extract oxygen to prevent corrosion. Dirt needs to be trapped prior any pumps. A combination Air/Dirt Separator is most economical and also available as combination device for hydronic de-coupling.


Pumps can be selected by consulting manufacturers that also offer selection software.

Almost all pump applications benefit from variable speed. For larger pumps a Variable Frequency Drive (VFD) varies the speed (typically down to 25-30% depending on model) and smaller pumps have integrated controls, like the Grundfos UP-VS series. Some pumps have integrated pressure-control that can save energy in systems without complex control systems.

Pressure Independent Control Valves (PICV)

Traditionally piping systems were balanced by manually adjusting calibrated balancing valves. Depending on other features they are called triple-duty valves or circuit setters. Those balancing valves only work accurately if they are sized for the expected flow and have a significant pressure drop (typically at least 10 ft H2O) in addition to the actual control valve pressure drop ( Modulating valves can add a significant pressure drop). Manual balancing also is a laborious and iterative process that in practice doesn't get done accurately. In addition all manual balancing valves are subject to some people "adjusting" them without understanding what they do. The solution to this problem are self-balancing valves.

A spring-loaded cartridge assembly is designed to increase pressure drop dramatically when the design flow is exceeded. This can be a standalone balancing valve like the B&G Flo-Setter or a Pressure Independent Control Valve (PICV) like the Honeywell.

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